Introducing Espresso and Robotium
Espresso is a test automation framework for Android applications developed by Google. It enables you to do automatic black-box UI tests. Therefor it uses the Android instrumentation to inspect and interact with the activities you are testing. To locate the UI elements it draws back on hamcrest matchers.
Robotium is an open-source test automation framework for automatic UI-tests. Created as an extension of the Android test framework it only supports native and hybrid Android apps. Robotium allows you to write a variety of test scenarios and it uses the Android instrumentation to inspect and interact with the activities in your app. Accessing the source code of the tested app is necessary to use this framework.